A biologic medicine is a large molecule typically derived from living cells and used in the treatment, diagnosis or prevention of disease. It includes a wide range of products such as vaccines, blood and blood components, allergenics, gene therapy, recombinant therapeutic proteins, monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins.
Biologic medicines are often 200 to 1,000 times the size of a small molecule drug and are far more complex structurally. It can be composed of sugars, proteins, or nucleic acids or complex combinations of these substances, or may be living entities such as cells and tissues. They are isolated from a variety of natural sources such as human, animal, or microorganism and may be produced by biotechnology methods and other cutting-edge technologies. Biologics often represent cutting-edge biomedical research. They can prove to be the most effective means to treat a variety of medical illnesses and conditions that presently have no other treatments available.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutic proteins are the most important biologic medicines in a rapidly growing biopharmaceutical marketplace expected to reach $140B to $220B by 2017. Antibody fragments such as Fab (fragment antigen binding) offer a new platform for biologics development. These molecules may offer deeper tissue penetration and quick clearance after administration, making them ideal for the delivery of a toxic payload such as a radionuclide to the cells of a tumor. As they can be developed with unique binding specificities against novel targets far more quickly than mAbs, they are also ideal components for personalized medicines and have a good potential in health care. Saksin Lifesciences Pvt. Ltd. is building a pipeline of novel medicines based on highly innovative antibody fragment platform.
In spite of the progress made in surgical techniques in many countries during the last decade, The leading causes of visual impairment in all areas of the world in 2010 are cataract (47.9%), glaucoma (12.3%), age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (8.7%), corneal opacities (5.1%), diabetic retinopathy (4.8%), childhood blindness (3.9%), trachoma (3.6%), and onchocerciasis (0.8%). The causes of avoidable visual impairment worldwide are all the above except for AMD.
Global data on visual impairment 2010
Globally, the number of people of all ages visually impaired is estimated to be 285 million, of whom 39 million are blind, with uncertainties of 10-20%. People 50 years and older represent 65% and 82% of visually impaired and blind, respectively.